Using the lower joint results in a sequence of notes within an approximate range of B3 and F♯5. John Cage, Solo for Clarinet, p. 126, line 4.A similar technique to ‘sliding tones’ is the ‘microtonal slide’, which again is used in all of the woodwind and brass parts. However, the clarinet part additionally specifies ‘by use of the lip’ and adds instructions about the use of ‘finger modulation with or without lip’ (e.g., p. 121, line 5). The finger modulated microtonal slides can be executed more easily with the simple system clarinet, for the same reason. In addition to the use of different sized noteheads, which are indicative of either dynamics or durations of a sound, or both, the majority of sounds have dynamics assigned to them. Unlike the other woodwind and brass parts, the Solo for Clarinet is biased towards diminuendos and combinations of dynamics, these latter being a ‘combination of two or more’ crescendos and diminuendos.
There are many different colour combinations with either the keys or the letters as the ‘stand-out’ colour (e.g. yellow on black, black on yellow, black on white, white on black). A separate number pad is normally used with a compact keyboard and can be moved out of the way when not needed. It can also be placed either side of the keyboard, which can be helpful for left-handed users. As they are smaller, compact keyboards can fit more easily between the arms of a wheelchair and are often more comfortable to use for single-handed users. Compact keyboards, as their name suggests, are smaller keyboards. The actual key sizes are quite similar to a standard laptop keyboard and, like a laptop, space is saved by removing the number pad .
Therefore this setup is very simply the Flanger contraption and a master volume control for the Sound Therapy teacher. Its effects are best noticed on very short percussives or prolonged notes. The sound source passes through an initial delay and then into the 4×4 Matrix. This matrix routes the sound to any or all of the four delay units . Similarly the sounds exiting those delays go through the matrix, which again re-routes them.
The remaining major feature of a quality piano affecting its sound is the frame. Traditionally made of grey cast iron, the frame has to withstand the tensile forces of the strings that total some twenty tonnes. Cast iron is far from an ideal choice but has survived from the days when it was the only option. Cast iron is highly absorbing of acoustic energy and has a low Young’s Modulus. If the frame is too flexible, the piano is difficult to tune because, as one string is corrected for tension, adjacent strings will be altered. Furthermore, if the symmetry of the stringing is broken by a frame-strengthening bar, then the quality of sound from strings on either side of the bar may be noticeably dissimilar.
Normally on the keyboard, striking the same key repeatedly is hard to do quickly, but this way you can rapidly retrigger notes. You can use it for tremolo effects like on a violin, or you can also use it to trigger custom key switches for your synth. The sensors fit any keyboard with full-sized keys, from a 2-octave portable keyboard to a 97-key Boesendorfer Imperial Grand piano.